Plants and Temperature (Studies in Biology)

Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis and related gene expression in poplar
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Ankur Agarwal. Small increase in CO2 levels was not detrimental to photosynthetic efficiency of indoor plants even at temperatures lower than ambient.

Among the three tested plants, Snake plant exhibited better oxygen releasing potential during both light and dark period. Many studies have predicted an increase Indoor air quality has become a major issue in recent years. An alternative way to reduce the level of VOCs in combined with higher temperature due to global warming. Several ornamental potted plant Although crop specific response have also been reported showing species have the ability to absorb VOCs [9] and purify indoor air better yield at lower temperatures under influence of higher [10,11].

Plants also offer the advantage of providing psychological carbon dioxide concentration [4]. The aim of the study was to select best plant for pot transplantation in the cold areas of army Photosynthesis has long been recognized as one of the most barracks to improve the indoor air quality because barracks are temperature-sensitive processes in plants [3].

Photosynthesis is heated through keroheaters which is leading to poor indoor air the primary process by which carbon enters the biosphere and by which plants sense rising CO2 [5]. Photosynthesis is particularly quality. Since carbon dioxide levels are also generally high due sensitive to thermal stress, with increased photo inhibition of PSII to closed environment and poor air exchange rate during winter observed at temperature extremes [6].

Increases in atmospheric due to closed windows, effect of elevated carbon dioxide was levels of CO2 above current levels can increase photosynthesis also studied along with temperature. As diurnal variations in [1] even when plants were grown at temperature extremes [2]. Since plants face environmental conditions simultaneously, light and dark conditions.

Int J Plant Biol Res 5 4 : Agarwal et al. Average transpiration rate over all three CO2 were used in the present study. These were Dracaena fragrans concentrations was comparatively higher in dracaena 0. Net at all temperature levels. Data were collected from the all plants. Three samples were collected from each plant A and average was worked out.

Estimation of oxygen releasing potential To estimate the oxygen releasing potential, three selected potted plants viz. Mouth of the polythene was tide tightly with a provision of tubing to monitor the gas exchange with the help of multigas analyzer GasAlertMicro5, BW Technologies by Honeywell, USA as per schedule. Tubing was plugged suitably to avoid any leakage of gas.

Dark conditions were created by covering the polythene bags with dark cotton cloth. Gas composition for oxygen content was checked on hourly basis. Plants selected were of uniform height and growth of one year age. RESULTS Effect on photosynthesis and transpiration rate In the present experiment, results revealed that photosynthetic rates in all three plants decreased significantly C as they were exposed to low temperature from ambient Figure 1. Gaseous oxygen composition of air inside the polythene bag was checked to measure the oxygen releasing potential of the indoor plants. Results revealed that all three plants behaved differently in their behavior of oxygen releasing potential [Figure 4, 5].

During the light sufficient conditions as presented in [Figure 4] decrease in gaseous oxygen content was rapid in dracaena during first hour whereas spider plant exhibited almost static oxygen content during first two hours and then gradual decrease in inside oxygen content in spider plant showing its better oxygen releasing potential. Snake plant exhibited a slight decrease in B polythene gaseous content the first two hours but then it exhibited B A Figure 3 Concentration of Oxygen recorded inside the closed chamber to quantify the oxygen releasing potential of three indoor plants under a light conditions, b dark conditions.

Introduction

During the dark conditions, oxygen releasing potential was also checked and results revealed that dracaena plant was poor in maintaining oxygen content inside the polythene during dark [Figure 5] whereas snake plant exhibited its potential in maintaining oxygen levels above Spider plants also exhibited its ability to cope with the dark and revealed its oxygen releasing potential even in dark conditions. The results in the present study revealed that photosynthetic rates in all three plants decreased significantly as they were exposed to low temperature from ambient.

Slightly fragrans and c Snake plant Sansevieria trifasciata. All tested plants including for photosynthesis and to counter the seasonal temperature shift snake plant attained peak of O2 production during early morning [3] but ability of temperature acclimation of photosynthesis differ hours much before sunlight reaches its maximum intensity. He between plant species [14,15]. Snake plant has shown better cold also found that snake plant maintains good O2 concentration even tolerance potential in relation to photosynthetic ability [16].

The at the lower light intensities. Snake plant ambient, photosynthetic rates more or less dropped slightly at exhibited its potential in maintaining oxygen levels above The Rubisco oxygenase side reaction promotes the production of H 2 O 2 , which can be toxic to plant cells. Transitory or constant high temperature causes morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes that reduce photosynthesis and thus limit plant growth and productivity [ 2 , 6 ].

Moderate heat stress causes a reversible reduction of photosynthesis; increased heat stress causes irreversible damage to the photosynthetic apparatus, resulting in greater inhibition of plant growth [ 7 ]. Therefore, a fundamental understanding of the response of photosynthetic physiology and related gene expression under heat stress may help to improve the thermostability of plants and limit the adverse effects of climate change on crop yield. Many studies have examined the effects of stress on the electron transport system, photosystems, pigments, photosynthesis-related enzyme activities, gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence in plants [ 10 , 11 ].

These studies have mostly focused on the adaptive responses of plants to heat stress, but less attention has been paid to the recovery capacity of plants under stress. Trees, with their long lifetimes, must periodically contend with fluctuating environmental conditions. Thus, they have evolved specific physiological mechanisms to adapt to natural changes in environmental conditions [ 12 ].

Analysis of the adaption response and recovery capacity of trees to heat stress will expand our understanding of thermostability in all plants. Most adaptive responses function, at least in part, through control of gene expression; therefore, heat-responsive transcription factors might play a critical role in abiotic stress responses [ 13 ].

Background

Plants and Temperature (Institute of Biology. Studies in Biology, No 68) [James Sutcliffe] on bitnistvesrapu.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Plants and temperature (The Institute of Biology's studies in biology ; no. 86) [ James Frederick Sutcliffe] on bitnistvesrapu.cf *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

Multiple genes interacting with each other and with the environment act in the responses to heat stress [ 2 ]. MYB gene family members function in ABA signaling, and in jasmonic acid-related gene expression, indicating that they affect crosstalk between abiotic and biotic stress responses [ 17 ]. The numbers and expression of genes involved in regulation of photosynthesis in trees in response to heat stress remains unclear. Therefore, it is extremely important to identify and analyze genes involved in high temperature tolerance in trees.

Cells in Plants and Animals - IGCSE Biology

The advantages of using members of the poplar genus Populus as genomic models for tree molecular biology have been extensively reported [ 18 , 19 ]. Among Populus species, P. Recent work reported the genome-wide gene expression profiles of the P. However, information on the genome-wide transcriptome response of P. Therefore, we selected P.

Effects of high temperature on photosynthesis and related gene expression in poplar

Our study presents a systematic investigation of differentially expressed genes in heat-stressed P. Furthermore, these differentially expressed genes may be suitable targets for biotechnological manipulation to improve heat tolerance in poplar and other species. The 1-year-old plant material was propagated from branches of adult mother plants. These seedlings were watered regularly with a nutrient solution. Each treatment group, including the control group, contained three replicate clones.

Supporting Information

Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were measured under stress conditions. The fourth fully expanded leaf, from each of three clones in each treatment was harvested for photosynthetic rate measurements using the portable photosynthesis system LI; Li-Cor Inc.

Subsequently, net photosynthetic rate Pn , transpiration rate Tr , intercellular CO 2 concentration Ci and stomatal conductance Gs were measured simultaneously. All parameters for measurement were as described by Chen et al. The details were according to Song et al. Ascorbate peroxidase APX activity assays were according to the method of Nakano and Asada [ 31 ].

The extinction coefficient of ascorbate was used for calculating APX enzyme activity. Endogenous H 2 O 2 levels were detected by measuring luminol-dependent chemiluminescence according to the method described by Dat et al. MES-KCl buffer solution was used for washing the leaves sampled from treated poplar. The details were according to the method described by Song et al. To identify differentially expressed genes under heat stress, we used the six-hour treatment group for microarray expression profiling. Fresh tissue leaf samples were collected from the three independent P.

The process of amplification, labeling, purification and hybridization were performed at the Shanghai Bio Institute using the Affymetrix GeneChip Poplar Genome Array contained 6, probe. The melting curve was used to check the specificity of the amplified fragment. All reactions were carried out in triplicate for technical and biological repetitions of three individuals. The generated real-time data were analyzed using the Opticon Monitor Analysis Software 3.

The real-time PCR primer pairs are shown in Additional file 1. The efficiency of the primer sets was calculated by performing real-time PCR on several dilutions of first-strand cDNAs. Efficiencies of the different primer sets were similar. The specificity of each primer set was checked by sequencing PCR products [ 34 ].

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The parameters of fold change analysis data filtered and minimum false discovery rate were calculated according to Song et al. At three hours, Pn, Gs, Tr and Ci were significantly lower in heat-treated plants than in control plants, but iWUE was significantly higher. At six hours, Pn, Gs and Tr increased slightly in heat-treated plants, but were significantly less than in control plants.

Also at six hours, Ci decreased to its minimum value and iWUE increased dramatically to a peak. By contrast, Gi showed a rising trend at subsequent time points. Changes in gas exchange at high temperatures. Error bars represent standard error.