Global installed CSP-capacity increased nearly tenfold between and and grew at an average of 50 percent per year during the last five of those years. Spain and the United States remained the global leaders, while the number of countries with installed CSP were growing but the rapid decrease in price of PV solar, policy changes and the global financial crisis stopped most development in these countries. There is a notable trend towards developing countries and regions with high solar radiation with several large plants under construction in CSP is also increasingly competing with the cheaper photovoltaic solar power and with concentrator photovoltaics CPV , a fast-growing technology that just like CSP is suited best for regions of high solar insolation.
The efficiency of a concentrating solar power system will depend on the technology used to convert the solar power to electrical energy, the operating temperature of the receiver and the heat rejection, thermal losses in the system, and the presence or absence of other system losses; in addition to the conversion efficiency, the optical system which concentrates the sunlight will also add additional losses. The maximum conversion efficiency of any thermal to electrical energy system is given by the Carnot efficiency , which represents a theoretical limit to the efficiency that can be achieved by any system, set by the laws of thermodynamics.
Real-world systems do not achieve the Carnot efficiency. For a solar receiver with a mechanical convertor e. The graph shows that the overall efficiency does not increase steadily with the receiver's temperature. Although the heat engine's efficiency Carnot increases with higher temperature, the receiver's efficiency does not. On the contrary, the receiver's efficiency is decreasing, as the amount of energy it cannot absorb Q lost grows by the fourth power as a function of temperature.
Hence, there is a maximum reachable temperature. There is a temperature T opt for which the efficiency is maximum, i. Costs are expected to decrease, but there are insufficient installations to clearly establish the learning curve. By , there was 1.
Information and communications. Build a heliostat for solar heating and lighting, Introduction. DRIVE Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability is a voluntary, non-binding, and nonlegal The expansion of Solar One to Solar Two required a new molten-salt heat transfer system and a new control system which allowed the heliostats to track the sun. Slideshow by kirsi Wood is expensive. Sunlight is reflected by the mirror and gets concentrated on the dewar tube. Subsequently, larger parts of the installation have been moved to China as part of the huge energy demand. The curvature of the small sections approximately replicates the effect of the entire curved lens surface.
Until , solar-thermal electricity generation was initially eligible for feed-in tariff payments art. The capacity limits for the different system types are re-defined during the review of the application conditions every quarter art. Prior to the end of an application period, the market caps specified for each system type are published on the website of the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade art.
Since 27 January , Spain has halted acceptance of new projects for the feed-in-tariff. These certificates can then be sold and transferred to liable entities usually electricity retailers to meet their obligations under this tradeable certificates scheme. However, as this legislation is technology neutral in its operation, it tends to favour more established RE technologies with a lower levelised cost of generation, such as large scale onshore wind, rather than solar thermal and CSP. This means that larger scale CSP projects would not be eligible for payment for feed-in incentives in many of the State and Territory jurisdictions.
Also, it exports its technology, further increasing the technology's stake in energy worldwide. Because the technology works best with areas of high insolation solar radiation , experts predict the biggest growth in places like Africa, Mexico, and the southwest United States. It indicates that the thermal storage systems based in nitrates calcium , potassium , sodium , The study examined three different outcomes for this technology: no increases in CSP technology, investment continuing as it has been in Spain and the US, and finally the true potential of CSP without any barriers on its growth.
The findings of the third part are shown in the table below:. Finally, the study acknowledged how technology for CSP was improving and how this would result in a drastic price decrease by Moreover, with the abundant natural-gas reserve in the Algerian desert, this will strengthen the technical potential of Algeria in acquiring Solar-Gas Hybrid Power Plants for hour electricity generation. Most of the participants pulled out of the effort at the end of Investors such as venture capitalist Vinod Khosla expect CSP to continuously reduce costs and actually be cheaper than coal power after It also is much easier to deploy and install.
The glossy film uses several layers of polymers, with an inner layer of pure silver. Telescope designer Roger Angel Univ. Angel utilizes a spherical concentrating lens with large-telescope technologies, but much cheaper materials and mechanisms, to create efficient systems. Producers blame clouds and stormy weather, but critics seem to think there are technological issues.
These problems are causing utilities to pay inflated prices for wholesale electricity, and threaten the long-term viability of the technology. As photovoltaic costs continue to plummet, many think CSP has a limited future in utility-scale electricity production. China plans to have a total capacity of 5. China has reposed confidence in CSP technology for meeting its energy needs and taken global leadership to make CSP commercially competitive over other dispatchable generation.
CSP has other uses than electricity.
Researchers are investigating solar thermal reactors for the production of solar fuels, making solar a fully transportable form of energy in the future. These researchers use the solar heat of CSP as a catalyst for thermochemistry to break apart molecules of H 2 O, to create hydrogen H 2 from solar energy with no carbon emissions.
There have been several proposals for gigawatt size, very-large-scale solar power plants. The gigawatt size projects would have been arrays of standard-sized single plants. The locations with highest direct irradiance are dry, at high altitude, and located in the tropics. These locations have a higher potential for CSP than areas with less sun. Abandoned opencast mines , moderate hill slopes and crater depressions may be advantageous in the case of power tower CSP as the power tower can be located on the ground integral with the molten salt storage tank. CSP has a number of environmental effects, particularly on water use, land use and the use of hazardous materials.
Cleaning agents hydrochloric acid , sulfuric acid , nitric acid , hydrogen fluoride , 1,1,1-trichloroethane , acetone , and others are also used for semiconductor surface cleaning. Some projects are looking into various approaches to reduce the water and cleaning agents use, including the use of barriers, non-stick coatings on mirrors, water misting systems, and others.
Insects can be attracted to the bright light caused by concentrated solar technology, and as a result birds that hunt them can be killed by being burned if they fly near the point where light is being focused. This can also affect raptors who hunt the birds. According to rigorous reporting, in over six months, singed birds were counted.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with concentrator photovoltaics. Main article: Parabolic trough. Main article: Solar power tower. Main article: Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector. Main article: Dish Stirling.
Main article: Solar thermal enhanced oil recovery. See also: Thermal energy storage and Solar thermal energy. Main articles: List of solar thermal power stations and Solar power by country. See also: Energy policy of Australia. Renewable energy portal Energy portal. Solar Energy. Bibcode : SoEn Bibcode : SoEn..
Sandia National Laboratories. Retrieved 11 April Department of Energy.
Wald 10 April The New York Times. Retrieved 18 June Renewable Energy World. Archived from the original on 2 November Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 4 March Retrieved 24 September Retrieved 3 June Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 14 March Africa The Classical World. Archived from the original on 7 August CSP facilities require large swaths of intensely sunny, relatively level land, which usually implies locating them in desert ecosystems, which can be fragile. Project developers may scrape and grade sites in order to install the structures that support the mirrors, potentially disrupting the habitats of ground-dwelling animals.
Several actual or proposed CSP projects in the Mojave Desert have run into troubles because of the desert tortoise, a species native to the U. Southwest and Mexico that is already threatened by development, climate change, and other issues [ 17 ].
While modular PV projects can more easily be built around physical constraints such as tortoise habitat or be scaled back to minimize impacts, this flexibility is much less available to CSP. Project developers can, however, reduce impacts to plants and animals by building on already disturbed lands or by placing mirrors more efficiently to make optimal use of land [ 18 ].
Concentrating solar thermal power and fuels will be part of the energy technology revolution necessary to mitigate climate change while. Technology Roadmap Concentrating Solar Power INTERNATIONAL ENERGY AGENCY The International Energy Agency (IEA).
Unique to CSP power towers is the issue of solar flux created by the mirrors. The extreme heat created by the concentrated energy can singe and kill passing birds and bats. Incidents of bird deaths were first reported at the Ivanpah solar facility in the Mojave soon after its launch in [ 19 ]. Understanding and minimizing such wildlife impacts is an important issue for the future of power towers. Water use.
CSP plants often use water to cool the steam once it has been used to generate electricity. One solution is exemplified in some CSP projects in the United States, including Ivanpah and the Genesis solar project also in California , which cool steam with air instead of water, cutting water consumption by 90 percent or more [ 21 ].