All of these processes together constitute students' vocabulary knowledge.
Word identification or recognition without comprehension of the meaning and use of a word reveals a deficiency in vocabulary knowledge. Good readers know a wide range of oral and print vocabulary. Typically, vocabulary knowledge results from extensive and repeated exposures to words through reading and speaking. One study estimated that good readers read approximately one million words per year . Good readers have superior vocabulary knowledge and possess the following characteristics.
A reader's oral vocabulary is the collection of words used in speaking . Skilled readers are able to use grade-level words fluently and clearly in their speech and understand those words when used by others in their speech. A skilled reader can recognize that word again with little effort . To do this, readers must develop their decoding skills to the point that decoding occurs effortlessly. Skilled readers are able to read words in written text at or above their grade level and use these words in written communication .
When good readers encounter unfamiliar words, many translate this text into speech, either by decoding or getting help from someone else. Once the word is verbalized, good readers automatically recognize the word or engage in a self-regulated process to discover its meaning. This may include but is not limited to analyzing the word's morphology roots and affixes and syntax part of speech , searching for context clues, or looking up the word in the dictionary . Because word identification is one of the foundational processes of reading, middle and high school students with poor or impaired word identification skills face serious challenges in their academic work.
Some struggling adolescent readers have difficulty decoding and recognizing multi-syllabic words.
For example, words such as "accomplishment" leave many struggling readers unsure about pronunciation or meaning. This is often the case not just because their vocabulary is limited, but also because they are unaware of or not proficient in word-learning strategies based on understanding the meanings and functions of affixes e. In content areas in which text is more technical and abstract, insufficient vocabulary knowledge can become especially problematic for struggling readers. A major goal of vocabulary instruction is to facilitate students' ability to comprehend text .
In addition, the meanings of many words vary from context to context and from subject to subject, making academic vocabulary especially difficult to acquire.
Further information: Dyscalculia. Often, Ms. Given the "difficulty learning in a typical manner", this does not exclude the ability to learn in a different manner. From New Zealand literature on transitions, ERO identified 12 aspects that indicate students have made successful transitions Peters, , Kennedy and Cox, For some students who had previously not made many friends, the move to secondary school meant that they could meet up with like-minded other students who shared their interests.
For example, the word meter has distinct definitions in different content areas. In literature, a meter is a poetic rhythm and in math, it is a unit of measurement. In science, a meter is a device for measuring flow. Students may experience difficulty if they do not understand that words have multiple meanings .
Research findings suggest that there is not a single best way to teach vocabulary ; rather, using a variety of techniques that include repeated exposures to unknown word meanings produces the best results. Traditionally, independent word-learning strategies, such as the use of dictionaries and context clues, have been common strategies for teaching new vocabulary.
Dictionary usage involves multiple skills, such as using guidewords, decoding, and discerning correct definitions . Using context clues involves integrating different types of information from text to figure out unknown vocabulary. These strategies are helpful after multiple encounters with a word but should be used in combination with other instructional practices .
Monitoring Comprehension: Tracking Learning in the Classroom Together: Linking Skills and Curriculum for Adolescents with a Language Learning Disability. In: Brent, Mandy; Millgate-Smith, Chris. Working Together: Linking Skills and Curriculum for Adolescents with a Language Learning Disability. Camberwell, Vic.
The following vocabulary development strategies have been found to be effective in improving adolescent literacy levels. Pre-teaching vocabulary facilitates the reading of new text by giving students the meanings of the words before they encounter them. This practice reduces the number of unfamiliar words encountered and facilitates greater vocabulary acquisition and comprehension .
Leaving students on their own to grasp the content material as well as to decode possibly unfamiliar vocabulary is setting them up for failure. Teachers can introduce both the more unfamiliar specialized academic words that will be used in the lesson as well as non-specialized academic words used when talking about the content. When considering which non-specialized academic words to emphasize, teachers should consider the structure or structures used in the text.
Text structures organize ideas and information according to certain patterns. For example, cause and effect patterns show the relationship between results and the events, people, or ideas that cause the results to occur. Teachers can use the following guidelines when selecting vocabulary to pre-teach:.
Once vocabulary words have been selected, teachers should consider how to make repeated exposures to the word or concept productive and enjoyable. For example, when introducing a particular word, pronounce it slowly to draw attention to each syllable, provide the word's meaning, examine word parts e. After introducing all words, have students work in pairs or small teams to create groups of related words and to label these groups.
Students can then take turns explaining to the class their reasons for grouping words in a particular manner. Students can also work in pairs to check each other's understanding of the new words .
Such activities provide multiple exposures to new words and can be structured in ways that are engaging and enjoyable for students. Scientific research supports the use of direct, explicit, and systematic instruction for teaching vocabulary . Vocabulary lessons should be fast-paced, brief, multi-sensory, and interactive i.
To learn and retain new words and concepts, students need to connect these words and concepts to what they already know. They also need repeated exposure to the words and concepts plus opportunities to practice using them in different contexts. Teachers can facilitate struggling readers' learning and retention of new vocabulary in the following ways:. Even more repetition and time with new vocabulary should be allowed for students with learning disabilities. English language learners also require more exposure and practice with English vocabulary . Vocabulary instruction using computer technology can be particularly helpful to struggling readers who need additional practice with vocabulary skills .
Computer technology allows for engaging formats, such as interfaces modeled on computer games. Hyperlinks that allow students to click on words and icons can add depth to word learning.
Students may find online dictionaries more useful and accessible than print dictionaries. Computers also provide access to content-area-related websites hosted by such institutions as museums and libraries. Finally, computer program animation may hold students' attention longer than plain text . Research has yet to demonstrate the most effective types of professional development needed for teachers to become proficient in vocabulary instruction. Fully equipping the teachers to address adequately the issue of vocabulary in classrooms is an important step toward improving the vocabulary of adolescents.
Another gap in the knowledge base is improved understanding of how vocabulary instruction should be integrated with comprehension instruction. We know that repetition and prior knowledge help familiarize adolescents with new vocabulary, but we need to determine what instructional techniques can help educators ensure that adolescents grasp the contextual meanings of vocabulary .
Archer, A. Gleason, and V. Vachon, Decoding and fluency: Foundation skills for struggling older readers. Learning Disability Quarterly, Bailey, A. Butler, An evidentiary framework for operationalizing academic language for broad application to K education: A design document. Bhattarya, A.
Ehri, Graphosyllabic analysis helps adolescent struggling readers read and spell words. Journal of Learning Disabilities, Bryant, D. Curtis, M. Jetton and J. Studies of twins indicate that genetic influences play an important part in RELI as well as in disorders of language acquisition in general.
There may also be overlap between the accounts. For example, RELI may have a high heritability because it represents the most severe form of SLI and has a genotype that has an impact on correlated cognitive processes that mediate linguistic processing. Recent systematic reviews of the literature report evidence of the effectiveness of speech and language therapy interventions for expressive language outcomes for children with SLI that cannot be accounted for by low IQ, behaviour or emotional problems or hearing or neurological impairments.
This raises issues about the reliability of the test scores because measures obtained from preschool children are particularly susceptible to the influence of factors associated with development, such as short attention span and distractability, levels of activity, and problems in engaging with an unfamiliar test administrator.
It is thus unclear whether these interventions would be beneficial for children with RELI. Three of these studies investigated interventions based upon underlying auditory processing deficits. The fourth was based upon existing models of language therapy in the UK. This trial did not support auditory processing deficits as a general explanation of severe RELI, although this was a particularly impaired cohort of children. Participants with RELI failed to benefit from a computer training program for comprehension of grammatical constructions to help sentence comprehension SES 0.
The findings once again fail to support auditory processing deficits as a general explanation of RELI within the range of their study.
The therapy focused on comprehension monitoring, vocabulary development, grammar, narrative, and developing language learning strategies.